The transport layer is the fourth layer of OSI model. Transport Layer protocols. In the internet world, the data packets are delivered in two fashions: Connection-oriented delivery (TCP) and, Each piece is known as segment and the process of breaking data into smaller pieces is known as segmentation. UDP 2. The network layer is the 3 rd layer of OSI model. TCP. This household example, servers as a nice analogy for explaining how the transport layer relates to the network layer. Let’s look at a practical example. Layer 3 – Network Layer. Transport layer functionalities: Connection-oriented communication. application messages = letters in envelopes processes = cousin hosts (also called end systems) = houses transport layer protocol = Ann and Bill network layer protocol = postal service (including mail carriers) A data segment is a Service Data Unit, which is used for encapsulation on the fourth layer (transport layer). Nowadays, the operating system supports multiuser and multiprocessing environments, an executing program is called a process. The transport layer is represented by two protocols: TCP and UDP. The tasks of the transport layer (also end-to-end control, transport control) include the segmentation of the data stream and in relieving congestion. The transport layer establishes a reliable communicative connection, maintaining the connection as data is transmitted. It consists of protocol elements that contain Layer 4 information control. And, after establishing links between transport layers of source and destination, each segment is transferred in a connection-driven way. On sending computer, it breaks data stream into smaller pieces before transmission. The IP protocol in the network layer delivers a datagram from a source host to the destination host. Typical examples of transport layer protocols are TCP (Transport Control Protocol) and UDP (User Datagram Protocol protocols). The concept of routing comes into the picture when we talk about this layer. The transport layer is the center of the entire hierarchy of the protocol. 1. Thus, transport layer ensures quality and reliability to the end user. Transport layer is also responsible for segmentation i.e. The Transport Layer. This household example serves as a nice analogy for explaining how the transport layer relates to the network layer: hosts (also called end systems) = houses processes = cousins application messages = letters in envelopes network-layer protocol = postal service (including mail persons) transport-layer protocol = Ann and Bill transport layer divides the large sized data coming from application layer into smaller chunks called segments and forwards them to the network layer. If each computer broadcasted at the same time, there may be a jam at the transport layer. What is UDP? Each computer uses a socket address to tell the server which computer and which port the data is coming from. 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